SJ-08-0121 : Puasa di musim panas(summer)

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SJ-08-0121 : Puasa di musim panas(summer)

Boleh tak bg komen sedikit ttg puasa di musim panas di negara barat. Saya faham, secara individu, jika kita tidak mampu dan puasa memudaratkan badan, maka Allah tidak menyusahkan hamba2 nya. Beberapa org ada bertanya saya ttg fatwa, berapa lama kita patut berpuasa di sebabkan masa berpuasa di negara barat mgkin boleh melebihi 16 jam sehari.

Saya terjumpa beberapa website ttg fatwa yg diberi;

Assalaamu alaikum I live in western coutry where the summer days are longer and even sometimes the sun shines for 24h a day . We have been fasting ramadan months the summer according to the time of Makka and then fast again the same month the winter time to make sure we won't miss any . I would like to know if that is ok also like fasting the mondays and thursdays and the days of full moon it is very important to my family and i to keep tight to islam in all ways possible. All this is according to our time but when the summer comes we can't fast 23 to 24h so we do it Makka time . Also it is important to fast Ramadan same time with all muslims when it is in summer inshaallah. Hope you to help us in this matter jazakumullah khair
If the sun shines for 24 hours a day in your country and never sets, then you should fast and break the fast according to the timing of the nearest country to you where the sun rises and sets; this applies to obligatory and supererogatory fasting.

However, if the fasting person finds hardship in fasting to an extent that he is unable to continue the fasting due to the extreme length of the day, then it is permissible for him to break the fast according to the necessity only [and not eat his fill] and then make up for that day whenever he is able to do so. As regards supererogatory fasting, one is not obliged to make up for the day he broke the fast.

For more benefit, please refer to Fataawa 83637 and 89463.

Allaah Knows best.

Fatwa 2

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the World; and blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his Family and Companions.
There are two different situations and each one of them has a specific rule.
First, the Muslim, who lives in a country where the sun rises and sets but the length of daylight may vary in summer and winter, has to divide the day in a way that allows him to pray the five prayers in their fixed times regardless of the length of daylight hours. Allah Says (interpretation of meaning): {Perform As­Salât (Iqamât-as-Salât) from mid-day till the darkness of the night (i.e. the Zuhr, 'Asr, Maghrib, and 'Ishâ' prayers), and recite the Qur'ân in the early dawn (i.e. the morning prayer). Verily, the recitation of the Qur'ân in the early dawn is ever witnessed (attended by the angels in charge of mankind of the day and the night).}[17:78] Allah also Says (interpretation of meaning): {… Verily, the prayer is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours.}[4:103]
Buraida reported on the authority of his father that a man came to the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) and asked about the times of prayer. Upon this the Prophet said: "Pray with us these two, meaning two days. When the sun passed the meridian, he gave command to Bilal who uttered the Azan to prayer, then he commanded him and pronounced Iqama for noon prayer (then at the time of the after noon prayer) he again commanded him, and Iqama for the afternoon prayer was pronounced, when the sun was high, white and clear. He then commanded and Iqama for the evening prayer was pronounced, when the sun had set. He then commanded him the Iqama for the night prayer was pronounced when the twilight had disappeared. He then commanded him and the Iqama for the morning prayer was pronounced, when the dawn had appeared. When it was the next day, he commanded him to delay the noon prayer till the extreme heat had passed and he did so, and he allowed it to be delayed till the extreme heat has passed. He observed the afternoon prayer when the sun was high, delaying it beyond the time he had previously observed it. He observed the evening prayer before the twilight had vanished, he observed the night prayer when a third of the night had passed; and he observed the dawn prayer when there was clear daylight. The Prophet said: "Where is the man who inquired about the time of the prayer?" The inquirer said: Messenger of Allah! Here I am. The Prophet said: The time of your prayer is within the limits of what you have seen".(Bukhari and Muslim) There are more Hadith specifying the times of prayers.
As for specifying times of fasting in such countries, Muslims should fast from dawn to sunset regardless of how long or short daylight hours may be. Similarly, they should not fast after sunset.
Allah Says (interpretation of meaning): {… and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your Saum (fast) till the nightfall.} [2:187].
But, whoever breaks his fast due to the length of the day, or fear of becoming very sick, or fear of worsening an existing illness, or delaying its cure, can make up for the missed days whenever he is able. Allah Says (interpretation of meaning): {… So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadân i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Saum (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. …}[2:185] Allah also Says (interpretation of meaning): {Allâh burdens not a person beyond his scope. …}[2:286] Allah also Says (interpretation of meaning): {… and has not laid upon you in religion any hardship, …} [22:78]
The second situation is where the person resides in country where the sun does not set during summer and does not rise during winter and this situation might go on for six months. Such Muslims should pray the five prayers in each 24-hour period. In this case, they fix approximate times for the times of prayers basing their estimation on the closest place where the time for night and day are distinct, and then specify the different times for each prayer.
The Prophet said: "A man from Najd with unkempt hair came to Allah's Apostle and we heard his loud voice but could not understand what he was saying, till he came near and then we came to know that he was asking about Islam. Allah's Apostle said, "You have to offer prayers perfectly five times in a day and night". The man asked, "Is there any more (praying)?" Allah's Apostle replied, "No, but if you want to offer the Nawafil prayers (you can)." [Reported by Imams Al Bukhari and Muslim]
Again when the Prophet talked to the companions about Dajjal (Antichrist) they asked him about how long the Antichrist would stay on Earth. The Prophet said, "Antichrist will stay for forty days. One of these days will be as long as a year. Another day will be like a month and another like a week and all the remaining days will be similar to the days people know. One of the companions asked the Prophet saying: "The day that is equal to a year will it be sufficient for us to pray only the five prayers we pray in normal days". The Prophet answered: No! Estimate for that" [Reported by Imam Muslim].
So, the Prophet did not consider the day that is equal to a year a normal day in which a Muslim is asked only to pray five prayers. So, as we mentioned earlier Muslims who live in countries where the sun does not set for a long time or does not rise for a long time should fix the times of prayers and fasting according to the area closest to them where the day and the night are distinct.
Then begin fasting according to that area and end fasting according to it on monthly and daily basis. Then estimate days on a 24-hour-basis.
Allah knows best.

Fatwa 3

Fasting on Mondays and Thursdays is a Sunnah and not an obligation. So there is no harm if you do not fast due to hardship in fasting, the length of time, or other reasons. As regards the obligatory fasting, like the month of Ramadhaan and other obligatory fasting, [like in the case a person has to make up some missed days of Ramadhaan] then one has to fast as long the day and night are distinguished by the setting of the sun and the beginning of Fajr time. In any country where day and night are distinguishable, fasting should be from the beginning of Fajr time to sunset, as Allaah says (which means): {"… and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall…"}[2:187]. There is no difference whether the day is long or short. However, if the fasting person finds hardship to an extent that he is harmed, then it is permissible for him to break the fast and make up for that day whenever he is able to do so. Allaah says (which means): {Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope.}[2:286]. Allaah also says (which means): {And has not laid upon you in religion any hardship.}[22:78]. As regards the difficulty that you are facing, then we ask Allaah to make a way out for you from all difficulties and to rectify your affairs. We advise you to fear Allaah, as this is the key for all good. Allaah says (which means): {And for those who fear Allaah, He (ever) prepares a way out for him and He provides for him from (sources) he never could expect. And whoever fears Allaah, He will make for him of his matter ease. That is the command of Allaah, which He has sent down to you; and whoever fears Allaah, He will remove for him his misdeeds and make great for him his reward.}[65:2-5].

Allaah knows best.
Boleh tak clarify ttg masa berpuasa, sbb contohnya masa extreme summer, subuh mgkn pukul 2 pagi dan maghrib pukul 10.30 mlm.


Re: Puasa di musim panas(summer)


Alhamdulillah. Kami akan cuba menjawab soalan anda dengan kadar kemampuan yang ada, In Sya Allah.

Prinsip berpuasa adalah Islam mudah, berpuasa dan berbuka sebagaimana firman Allah swt :-

وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ
“makanlah serta minumlah sehingga nyata kepada kamu benang putih (cahaya siang) dari benang hitam (kegelapan malam), iaitu waktu fajar. Kemudian sempurnakanlah puasa itu sehingga waktu malam (maghrib)” [surah al-Baqarah : 187].

Ibadat puasa ini mempunyai kaitan yang rapat dengan ibadat solat, terutamanya waktu solat Fajar (subuh) dan solat Maghrib. Solat-solat ini dilakukan dengan waktu-waktu yang ditentukan. Firman Allah swt :-

أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَى غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا
“Dirikanlah olehmu sembahyang ketika gelincir matahari hingga waktu gelap malam, dan (dirikanlah) sembahyang Subuh sesungguhnya sembahyang Subuh itu adalah disaksikan (keistimewaannya).” [surah al-Israa’ : 78]

إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَوْقُوتًا
“Sesungguhnya sembahyang itu adalah satu ketetapan yang diwajibkan atas orang-orang yang beriman, yang tertentu waktunya.” [surah al-Nisaa’ : 103]

Secara logiknya, perubahan didalam waktu iftar (berbuka) akan menyebabkan perubahan didalam solat Maghrib!. Maka disini ulama’ telah menjelaskan bahawa terdapatnya 2 keadaan hukum tertutama di Eropah yang menghadapi bulan puasa pada Musim panas (summer).

a. Negara yang masih dapat dibezakan diantara siang dan malamnya.
b. Negara dimana hari malam atau siangnya tidak dapat bezakan dengan kaedah terbit dan terbenamnya matahari.

1. Didalam situasi (a), dimana waktu siang dan malamnya boleh dibezakan berdasarkan terbit dan terbenamnya matahari, maka puasa hendaklah sebagaimana mengikut waktu-waktu yang ditentukan, seperti waktu solat. Tidak boleh menggunakan waktu Makkah atau waktu-waktu Negara lain. Sebagaimana yang diberikan didalam contoh diatas, waktu puasa adalah diantara 2 pagi hingga 10:30 malam pada masa musim panas yang melampau.

Agama Islam sangat adil didalam situasi ini. Bagi mereka yang tidak mampu berpuasa akibat masa yang terlalu panjang, kerana ditakuti sakit, dsb, maka disana Islam memberi alternative kepada mereka ini untuk berpuasa pada hari-hari lain, misalnya boleh menqada’ pada musim sejuk, dsb. Firman Allah swt :-

وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ
“Dia tidak menjadikan kamu menanggung sesuatu keberatan dan susah payah dalam perkara agama” [surah al-Hajj, 78]

2. Didalam situasi (b), dimana sesebuah Negara itu menghadapi 6 bulan pancaran matahari dan 6 bulan gelap misalnya, mereka akan berpuasa mengikut waktu Negara jiran yang terdekat, iaitu nagara jiran yang boleh membezakan siang dan malamnya didalam satu hari.

Ada juga dikalangan ulama’ seperti Dr Abdul Hamid al-‘Abidi, pensyarah Fiqh Perbandingan di Iraq, berkata bahawa Negara-negara yang mataharinya tidak terbenam, atau malamnya Cuma 2 jam, maka hendaklah mereka berpuasa mengikut Negara terdekat, yang mengalami waktu terbenam matahari secara normal, dan bukannya mengikut waktu Makkah, contohnya Kutub Utara berpuasa mengikut Finland, kerana Findland merupakan Negara terdekat yang menyaksikan terbenam matahari, dan sebagainya.

Sekian, wassalam

Rujukan :-

1. Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daemah, 6/130-136

2. Fatwa Dr Ali Jum’ah, Mufti Mesir (Ogos, 2009).